Choosing the Right Resolution (决定)
Millions of Americans began 2014 with the same resolution they started 2013 with, a goal of losing weight. However, setting weight loss as a goal is a mistake.
To reach our goal of losing weight --- the output, we need to control what we eat --- the input ( 输入). That is, we tend to care about the output but not to control the input. This is a bad way to construce goals. The alternative is to focus your resolution on the input. Instead of resolving to lose weight, try an actionable resolution: “I’ll stop having desert for lunch,” or “I’ll walk every day for 20 minutes.” Creating a goal that focuses on a well-specified input will likely be more effective than concentrating on the outcome.
Recently a new science behind incentives (激励) , including in education, has been discussed. For example, researcher Roland Fryer wanted to see what works best in motivating children to do better in school. In some cases, he gave students incentives based on input, like reading certain books, while in others, the incentives were based on output, like results on exams. His main finding was that incentives increased achievement when based on input but had no effect on output. Fryer’s conclusion was that the intensives for inputs might be more effective because do not knoe how to do better on exam, aside from general rules like “study harder.” Reading certain books, on the other hand, is a well-set task over which they have much more control.
As long as you have direct control over your goal, you have a much higher chance of success. And it’s easier to start again if you fail, because you know exactly what you need to do.
If you want to cut down on your spending, a good goal would be making morning coffee at home instead of going to a cafe, for example. This is a well-specified action-based goal for which you can measure your success easily. Spending less money isn’t a goal because it’s too general. Similarly, if you want to spend more time with your family, don’t stop with this general wish. Think bout an actionable habit that you could adopt and stick to, like a family movie night every Wednesday.
In the long run, these new goals could become a habit.
小题1:The writer thinks that setting weight loss as a goal is a mistake because _______ .A.it is hard to achieve for most Americans
B.it is focused too much on the result
C.it is dependent on too many things
D.it is based on actionable decisions
小题2:In Roland Fryer’s research, some students did better than the others because ______ .A.they obeyed all the general rules
B.they paid more attention to exams
C.they were motivated by their classmates
D.they were rewarded for reading some books
小题3:According to the writer, which of the following statements is a good goal?A.“I’ll give up desert.”
B.“I’ll study harder.”
C.“I’ll cut down my expense”
D.“I’ll spend more time with my family”
小题4:The writer strongly believes that we should ________ .A.develop good habits and focus on the outcome
B.be optimistic about final goals and stick to them
C.pick specific actions that can be turned into good habits
D.set ambitious goals that can balance the input ang output
小题1:B 考查细节理解。根据文章第二段中“we tend to care about the output but not to control the input”和“concentrating on the outcome”我们知道，我们失败或错误的根据是过分关注output/outcome(输出/结果)而不是“input”。
小题2:D 考查细节理解。根据文章第三段内容，我们知道Roland Fryer把“input”(即阅读)和“output”(考试结果)作为两种激励变量，得到的结果是input的效果好于output。所以本题答案应选D。
小题3:A 考查细节理解。根据全文内容可知，“losing weight”、“results on exams”、“study harder”、 “cut down on your spending”、“spend more time with your family”都强调结果，是太泛的目标，不易达到成功;而“control what we eat”、“stop having desert” 、“ walk every day”、“making morning coffee at home”、“a family movie night”等强调行动，是一种输入，所以更容易成功。故本题选A。
小题4:C 考查推理判断。根据文章最后一段“This is a well-specified action-based goal for which you can measure your success easily”可知，作者实际上是建议人们采取可形成好习惯的行动来实现目标。A项错在后半部分，聚焦结果是作者力图劝阻的。B项也是错误答案，要更关注输入和行动;D项为无效信息，文章中没有提到平衡输出和输入的关系。